Author Archives: Jule Schultz

Summer 2016 Water Temperature Round-Up

During the summer of 2016, the Spokane Riverkeeper monitored water temperature in the Spokane River and Hangman Creek.  The study was conducted to examine which areas of the watershed may contain unsuitable water temperatures for native Redband Trout and exceed Washington State’s water temperature standards of  64F (18C).  Not surprisingly, much of the Hangman Creek main stem and the Spokane River above Sullivan Road exceeded these temperatures.  Surprisingly, many tributaries of Hangman Creek were much cooler than expected.  Warning: This is a graph heavy post, but we wanted to get the data out there and will be following up with an in-depth report soon.

Spokane River

First, let’s talk about the Spokane River.  Spokane River water temperatures are best viewed in two sections – upriver and downriver of where the aquifer enters at Sullivan Road. Our upriver loggers were located at Barker Rd., Harvard Rd., and State Line, and downriver loggers at TJ Meenach Bridge, Glover Field, Division Street, and just above Upriver Dam.  This separation in temperature trends is due to aquifer influence; aquifer water is cooler than surface water, particularly in the summer, as it is stored below ground.  As indicated on the graph by the missing data, we had five loggers stolen over the course of the summer. Thankfully the upriver site of Harvard Rd. had enough data for us to compare its trends to downriver locations. (In lieu of this loss of equipment, PLEASE leave any scientific monitoring equipment you may come upon in the river be.  Next year I will be placing replicate loggers at each site!)

The graph below shows the average, highest/lowest daily, and extreme instantaneous water temperatures recorded at each location.  Even though there are missing data, the difference between the upriver and downriver sites isclear.  Upriver sites exceed water temperature standards while downriver sites do not.  Interestingly, the site above Upriver Dam (located just downstream of Boulder Beach) was the warmest of the downriver sites, and had days above the 64F (18C) standard.  slide1

The line graph below shows the temporal distinction between upriver (warm tones) and downriver (cool tones) trends. While both regions peaked in temperatures around late July and early August, downriver temperatures remained below the maximum habitable temperature for trout – indicated by the red line on the graph – for most of the summer while upriver temperatures were consistently above this limit. The upper Spokane River is uninhabitable for Redband Trout during the summer, raising the question of whether it should be listed.

slide2

Next year we plan to continue our Spokane River water temperature monitoring, focusing on just how hot the River is above the aquifer.  We will add a number of sites and replicate our current sites.

Hangman Creek

 

We placed loggers throughout the Hangman Creek watershed (see red stars on the map below), with four on the main stem and nine in tributaries.  Spangle Creek went dry, leaving us with 11 total loggers that gave us water temperature data.

slide5

We found that Hangman Creek is significantly hotter than its tributaries. The boxplot below shows Hangman Creek locations on the left and tributaries on the right.  No main stem location had average temperatures lower than any monitored tributary.  This can be explained in part by the lack of riparian (streamside) vegetation along the creek.  Though the tributaries do see influence from underground springs, if Hangman had adequate riparian cover along its entirety to filter non-point pollution and shade the creek from intense sunlight we may not see such a stark differentiation in temperature trends.  One surprise from this graph was Rattler Run Creek.  We expected it to have high temperatures because it flows through an intensely modified area of the Palouse, but instead it had the lowest temperatures of all the tributaries monitored.

slide3

Sorry for the messy graph below, but we wanted to show that parts of Hangman Creek rarely meet temperature standards for Redband Trout during the summer. While its tributaries do, Redband are unlikely to reach the sanctuary of the tributaries when Hangman’s main stem is uninhabitable from mid-May to early September.

slide4

Next year we plan to continue monitoring Hangman Creek watershed water temperature, focusing on more tributaries that may have temperature issues .  We would also like to form a better picture of where the main stem of Hangman Creek gets so warm by expanding our monitoring locations into Idaho.

Thanks to intern extraordinaire Rachel Fricke for help writing and editing this blog!   

Reducing Pollution One Permit at a Time

Spokane Riverkeeper has been hard at work over the past few months putting together comments (see link at bottom) on draft National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits for three dischargers on the Spokane River – City of Liberty Lake Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP), City of Spokane WWTP and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and Kaiser Aluminum, LLC.  Our comments on these permits reflect the need for strong limits on pollutants entering our river.

jerry-working

The Spokane Riverkeeper reads and comments on discharge permits, asking for less pollution to be dumped into our river.

The NPDES was established by the Clean Water Act as a program to control the amount of pollution discharged into bodies of water. The original architects envisioned achieving fishable, swimmable waters across the nation by 1987. The word “elimination” is of specific importance; the system was established with the intent that discharges would ultimately be eradicated. Today, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states only 31% of the nation’s rivers are actually monitored for water quality. Of those rivers monitored or tracked, only 55% are clean enough to for others to swim or fish.

Permits, such as those addressed in our comments, provide timelines and limits on the pollutants discharged into the Spokane River. Large pollutants of particular attention are the nutrient total phosphorus and toxic chemicals like PCBs. However, additional pollutants have a strong presence – examples being pharmaceuticals and fire retardants – and consequences we do not yet fully understand. The regulation of all of these pollutants is important because toxins bioaccumulate in the food chain, creating alterations in the eco-balance.

bioaccumulation-pcbs

Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the Puget Sound. Toxins magnify up the food chain, with dire consequences for those at the top (including humans).

These permits have strong total phosphorus limits and numerical limits proposed for PCBs that will put the river into compliance with water quality standards by 2026. We support the numbers in these permits and in fact, both total phosphorus and the numerical PCB limits in these permits are essential for a clean river. Without these numerical limits, these permits would not provide assurance that we will get to a clean river. Riverkeeper participates with Spokane River Regional Toxics Task Force (SRRTTF) that is designing a plan to get our river to the Water Quality Standard (WQS) for PCBs. For this Task Force to be legitimate, it must make “measurable progress” in cleaning up PCBs in the river. Riverkeeper maintains the belief that permits are an essential part of making “measurable progress” inside the SRRTTF.

The comment period for these permits is currently closed, but NPDES Permits for Inland Empire Paper  and Spokane County will open for public comment in draft form this Fall. Information on these will be sent your way via Facebook and email alerts!

Check out our comments here:  waterkeeper-tlc-npdes-comments

 

A huge thanks to our intern Rachel Fricke for writing this blog.

Spokane’s Solution to Combined Sewage Overflows

A few weeks ago, we had the privilege of touring a Combined Sewage Overflow (CSO) tank currently being constructed underneath Pettit Drive (better known as Doomsday Hill). The City’s investment in multiple tanks similar to the one pictured below is preventing millions of gallons of combined sewage and stormwater overflow from ending up in our river.  This project and ones like it are great news for the health of the Spokane River.

jule-in-cso-tank

Riverkeeper technical lead, Jule Schultz, stands in the CSO tank at the top of Doomsday Hill.

So what are CSOs, and why do they exist in the first place? When Spokane’s sewer system was initially installed in the late 1800s, sewage and stormwater were removed via a singular pipe system, and all pipes drained directly into the Spokane River or Hangman Creek (!). A Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) was installed by 1958 with a capacity of 50 million gallons a day (mgd). Sewage and wastewater that were treated discharged into the river. However, on days when flow exceeds the WWTP’s maximum capacity– typically a result of precipitation or rapid snowmelt – runoff overwhelms the ability of the WWTTP to handle this combined sewage and stormwater. On these days, the excess combined pollution flows into the River before reaching the sewage treatment plant, hence the term Combined Sewage Overflow (see figure below).

cso-diagram

Figure 1. A typical CSO which sends sewage to be treated at the Wastewater Treatment Plant during dry weather, but diverts sewage to the river during wet weather. (Image courtesy of Wikipedia).

Though our sewage treatment plant’s capacity has increased to a present-day maximum capacity of 150 million gallons per day, CSOs continue to occur, albeit at significantly reduced numbers. The City’s 2015 annual report found that 54 million gallons of untreated combined sewage and stormwater was discharged into the river.

cso-tank-diagram

Figure 2. A typical CSO storage tank adds capacity to a sewer system and reduces sewage flowing to the river. (Image courtesy of King County).

To further combat CSOs, in 2005 the City of Spokane initiated a plan calling for the addition of CSO control facilities to the city’s sewer system. These control facilities are large, underground concrete tanks. In the event of an excessive flow, CSO tanks temporarily store combined sewage and stormwater until flow has decreased to the point where the treatment facility has the capacity to process the stored overflow. The tank we toured under Doomsday will have a capacity of 694,000 gallons.

Currently, 11 CSO tanks are operating with a total combined volume of 3,598,300 gallons, but during the duration of a storm, they can redirect much more combined sewage than that (Figure 3 below). For example, a December 2015 four tanks diverted 4.2 million gallons! With the completion of all tanks under construction and in design, there will ultimately be 24 tanks with a combined capacity of 14,579,300 gallons. This should essentially eliminate CSO outfalls into the river, ensuring cleaner water for humans and wildlife. For more information on CSOs, see the City’s CSO Overview/Monthly Reports, 2015 CSO Annual Report, 2005 CSO Plan Amendment, and Integrated Clean Water Plan.

three-days-in-a-cso-tank

A huge thanks to Rachel Fricke, our intern, for writing this blog.

In Hot Water: A Preview of Water Temperatures in the Spokane Watershed, 2016

Rachel Fricke, a Spokane native who comes to us from the University of Southern California, is our Fall Intern. Below, she discusses our recent summer temperature findings.

paddling-hangman1

Hangman Creek in the Palouse region of Whitman County, WA. Note the complete lack of streamside vegetation that should provide shade from the summer sunshine.

 

For the past month, I’ve had the pleasure of running around the Spokane River watershed collecting and recording data from temperature loggers that were placed back in June. Why does Riverkeeper care about temperature? Though temperature is not a physical or chemical pollutant, it has a direct impact on the organisms inhabiting our river and its tributaries.

The majority of freshwater-dwellers are cold-blooded, meaning their internal body temperature aligns with the temperature of their external environment. Should these organism’s internal temperatures become too hot, their cells begin to die, eventually causing mortality. Redband trout, a prominent species in the Spokane River ecosystem, live and spawn at an optimum temperature of 57.2° F. They can withstand temperature variances of a few degrees, but will not occupy regions where water temperature is significantly higher than optimum.

Our summer loggers from the Spokane River showed that temperatures reached their highest (~83° F) at the Harvard and Barker Road bridge crossings. This makes sense because these locations are upriver from where groundwater from the aquifer – which is cooler than surface water – begins feeding into the river. Further downriver at TJ Meenach we recorded a high of 63°F – a habitable temperature for Redband.

river-temps-2016

Summer 2016 Spokane River water temperature. An upcoming post will look at these temperatures in depth.

On Hangman Creek, our loggers recorded significantly elevated temperatures. At the mouth, where Hangman flows into the Spokane, temperatures peaked at 79° F.  Just downstream from Tekoa at Waverly we recorded our highest water temperatures from the entire watershed – a whopping 84° F.

Hangman’s banks in this region have little to no riparian cover, also referred to as streamside forestation. Plant growth alongside streams is essential for healthy stream temperatures as it shades creek water. Hangman Creek’s current conditions in the Waverly area leave creek water directly exposed to the Palouse’s intense summer sun and heat, resulting in heightened water temperatures.

Check back within the coming weeks for a comprehensive report of this year’s temperature and water quality data. For more information on Redband trout, the Western Native Trout Initiative is a great reference.

paddling-hangman-2

A kayaker observes the lack of riparian cover on Hangman Creek in April, 2016.

 

A Message from Will the Intern

Will Tender, a student at Redlands College, interned for us this summer.  He volunteered his time hauling heavy loads of garbage and helping with our water quality monitoring program.  I asked him to write a short summary of what he did this summer (that’s him in the blue PFD).  13312662_1005810499455217_1208258925092673815_n

This summer I was given the opportunity to be an intern for the Spokane Riverkeeper. Throughout the experience I learned a lot about the Spokane River and Watershed. Pretty much every day I was in the field, working right beside the river. We rafted the river about once a week picking up several hundreds of pounds of garbage each day. Days we didn’t raft we would take groups out alongside the shore to pick up trash, go on water quality runs, place temperature loggers into the Watershed to help monitor the health of various spots on the river, as well as a variety of other tasks.

13507090_1024439490925651_2283164362271327934_nRafting at least once a week for 3 months gives you a newfound respect and appreciation for the river. It really showed me that preservation should be taken very seriously, as something so beautiful and natural should be protected from industrialization and unnecessary pollution.

The other aspect of this experience that really altered my views was how the Riverkeeper wants people to use the river. Initially, when I began this experience I wasn’t sure the program’s stance on public usage. I thought that public usage was potentially a primary source of pollution. I came to find out that a good deal of the frequent rafters and tubers are very respectful of the river and strive to protect it. A really cool aspect of the Riverkeeper is how supportive they are of the public users, and how the program not only supports, but encourages everyone to experience the river.

Overall this opportunity opened my eyes to what goes into monitoring and protecting nature as a whole. There are so many different components that need to be addressed, and so many different players that need to be factored into the equation. This internship has been a real mentality changing experience, and I am grateful for the opportunity.

Riverkeeper Comments on Fish Consumption Rule

The Spokane Riverkeeper recently submitted oral comments to Ecology regarding their new fish consumption rule.  Although the rule is improved from previous versions, it is still lacking.  Standards for mercury, PCB’s, and Arsenic are still too high and the inclusion of variances, increased compliance schedules, and and intake credits further weaken the rule.  Read on for the full story:

Oral Comments on WDOE Proposed Fish Consumption Rule – April 6, 2016

The following comments are made with regards to the proposed Washington Department of Ecology Fish Consumption Rule.  These comments were prepared by the Spokane Riverkeeper and read by myself,  _______________ on behalf of the Spokane Riverkeeper.  The Spokane Riverkeeper is a project of the Center for Justice, and we are an affiliated member of the Waterkeeper Alliance.  We work to protect and restore the world’s waters so that they are healthy and usable by communities that interact with them.  As such, the Spokane Riverkeeper’s stated mission is keeping the Spokane River Fishable and Swimmable.

The rule change that the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) has proposed takes several steps in the right direction, but falls short in helping us keep our Spokane River “Fishable” for the public.

  1. Ecology’s proposed rule has improved the fish consumption formula over the existing rule. The formula assumes a more realistic consumption rate of 175g of fish per/day while keeping the acceptable human health risk at 1 case of cancer in a million fish-eating residents.  These standards would make Washington’s waters cleaner and its fish safer to eat.  We commend Ecology for listening to the public and changing their proposed rules to be more realistic and more protective of human health.
  2. However, we encourage Ecology to review and revise their rule with regards to Mercury, PCBs and Arsenic. The proposed rule is not strong enough with regards to these toxins.  All of these toxins bio-accumulate and bio-magnify in the food chain in such a way that makes Spokane River fish problematic to consume.  In some cases, fish in the Spokane River are edible under the specific amounts and frequencies recommended in Dept of Health fish advisories.  But depending on the age, species and river reach, many other types of fish too toxic to eat.  The standards for PCBs are still exceeded in some fish and statewide mercury advisory remains in place making their consumption extremely problematic for pregnant women, children and folks who for cultural and economic reasons consume far more than the recommended allowance.  Currently, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has put forward PCB standards that are more protective and more up to date.  We feel strongly that The EPA guidelines should be followed.
  3. Additionally, we feel that the EPA standards for both arsenic and methyl mercury should be adopted. We understand that these toxins are tough to capture, but feel strongly that inaction is not a solution. Using the older National Toxics Rule criteria is not adequate and leaves the public vulnerable to higher levels of these toxins over time.
  4. The proposed rule Increases timeframes for Compliance Schedules which is unacceptable. Using the language “as soon as possible” when refereeing to must meeting water quality standards is too idealistic and vague.   There rule should require concrete time-limits for dischargers to meet state standards to ensure accountability that our waters are clean.
  5. The increased availability and/or potential use of Variances in the proposed rule is unacceptable. Ecology policy should be pushing dischargers to lower their output of dangerous chemicals at the end of pipe, precisely because of the nature and amount of pollution in a water body can be excessive and challenging.  Ecology should not be providing off-ramps from meeting existing standards or providing the designated, attainable uses.
  6. Do not provide intake credits. Incentives should be developed to capture all pollutants coming through the systems that end up in our waters.  Please construct policies that create net decreases in pollutants leaving the end-of-pipes in order to encourage dischargers to work towards cleaning up Washington’s waters.

These comments are made with the idea that we should be working towards the ultimate elimination of discharge to the nation’s rivers.  Ecology’s proposed rule-making should help us get there.  Please do not provide provisions that stall our progress, or avoid the tough work of getting our public waters fishable and swimmable.  Thanks for the opportunity to comment.

Spokane Riverkeeper.

 

(For the readers reference if you need -see http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/ruledev/wac173201A/1203ov.html for comparison)

 

Background links:

EPA/ comparison of proposed WDOE rule and EPA recommendations:

http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/ruledev/wac173201A/1203ov.html

Rulemaking page:

http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/ruledev/wac173201A/1203ov.html

WDOE info on Variances:

http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/swqs/HHCinfo-variances.html

 

How water use affects the Spokane River

We attended the Spokane River Forum Conference last week and learned tons about the unique watershed we work so hard to protect.  One talk stood out for me though and I wanted to share it with you.  John Covert of the Washington State Department of Ecology presented on the relationship between our summertime water use and the flow of the Spokane River.

Slide4

The Spokane Valley – Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer (SVRP) provides drinking water to much of the greater Spokane area via wells drilled throughout the area.

In the Spokane area we get our water from the massive 10 trillion gallon Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie (SVRP) Aquifer which extends from Lake Coeur d’Alene north to Lake Pend Oreille and west to Spokane.  What’s interesting about this is that the river also receives water from the aquifer starting from downstream of the Sullivan Road Bridge.  This cold influx from the SVRP aquifer to the river is what makes our river a great place for our native Redband Trout and  to cool off in the heat of summer. The drought of 2015 allowed scientists to explore the relationship between our water use from the SVRP aquifer and River levels.

This summer was the hottest and driest on record in Spokane.  Summertime river flows were the lowest on record for much of the summer.  It was so dry that the Post Falls dam (yellow dot on map), which usually begins to draw down Lake Coeur d’Alene after Labor Day instead continued to discharge a relative trickle (500 cfs, red line on graph below) into the river throughout September and October.  This had never happened before and allowed us to see a fascinating pattern (see graph below).  Amazingly although the flow over Post Falls dam remained steady, the river began to rise at the gage in downtown Spokane (pink square on map above).  Where is the extra water in the river coming from?

The explanation of this lies in the graph below.  As the City of Spokane (dark blue) decreased their pumping rate the river (green) began to rise.  Near the end of August the City of Spokane began to decrease their pumping rate, eventually reducing it about 70 cubic feet per second (cfs).  The river began to respond in early September, eventually gaining about 90 cfs!  This is approximately 13% of the river flow.  Aquifer wide pumping decreased about 166 cfs during this period.  Due to this reduction in pumping, the aquifer levels actually rose 0.5 ft (6 inches), resulting in more aquifer water discharging to the river.  Comparing the maximum air temp (light blue) with the city pumping rate (dark blue), shows that during hot periods pumping increases.

covert graph

These data show that decreases in water use increase the flow of the Spokane River.  I suspect the variations in pumping rate are due to the typical summertime uses, such as lawn watering, which does not return water to the river.  Most importantly, we have never seen such clear data on how personal water use choices affect our Spokane River.  As summertime river levels continue to drop due to decreasing snow pack (another amazing and scary talk at the conference) and municipal water use continues to grow, our choices regarding water use will have even larger impacts to our river.

Pollution Enforcement in Washington State (or lack thereof)

Washington State has two approaches to protect the quality of the public’s water from agricultural pollution. Sadly, neither is functioning to provide the healthy, clean water that the public is entitled to.  In one approach, the federal government provides funding that is made available through the counties and the State to fund voluntary programs to address agricultural water quality problems. In the second approach, the Washington Water Pollution Control Act gives the Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE) the authority to regulate farm practices that protect water quality. This authority was upheld by the Washington Supreme Court in the Lemire vs Ecology case in August of 2013.  Ideally, participation by the agricultural industry in voluntary programs would work in concert with regulatory frameworks to re-enforce a culture of lawful behavior and practices that ensure public values are protected.

Enforcement and complaints1

Figure 1. Comparison of the number of pollution complaints received, and violation letters, warning letters, and financial penalties issued by Ecology by region.

Within the regulatory process, Ecology identifies farm operations that are polluting the public’s water through citizens’ complaints and a Watershed Evaluation Process. They proceed with offering farm operations technical and financial assistance to correct their behavior and improve their practices via violation letters.  If the behavior is not corrected, then punitive orders may be issued with associated fines.  As a result of a Freedom Of Information request, we received data on the number of complaints, violation letters, warning letters, orders and fines levied by the Department of Ecology since the Lemire case was decided in August of 2013.  We also received information on the types of pollution these violation letters addressed.  These data show that Ecology’s rarely uses their regulatory ability and agricultural pollution violations continue to go unaddressed in Washington State.

In the Eastern Region and the Spokane River Watershed, regulatory framework is in place but through inaction has become dysfunctional and counter-productive.   For example, since the Lemire case in the Eastern Region, 74 complaints have been lodged with WDOE and  129 follow-up, violation letters that offer technical and financial assistance have been sent to farm operations that are violating water quality law.  Astoundingly, no administrative orders have been issued nor fines levied.  (To illustrate this pattern, see Figure 1 for comparison of Eastern Regional Office to Bellingham Field Office).

Enforcement and complaints

Figure 2. The number and percentage of identified agricultural pollution violations fixed in Ecology’s Eastern Region since August, 2013.

Further, records show that of those 129 problem cases identified by WDOE, only a single farm has corrected their behavior and cleaned up their operations.  Inside the Eastern Region, the Spokane River tributary of Hangman Creek continues to have the worst water quality in the state (Figure 3).  In this watershed our records show that out of 22 active pollution cases (since 2013) none have been corrected.

wqi

Figure 3. Comparison of Ecology’s water quality index of selected streams in Washington State. A lower water quality index indicates worse water quality. For more information go to: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/eap/fw_riv/docs/WQIOverview.html

This inaction has created a norm in which agricultural industry breaks the law with impunity and virtually ignores water quality concerns. Ultimately, this inaction has sent a clear message that actual protection of the public’s surface water is not a priority for WDOE and emboldened polluters with the message that absolutely no enforcement is forthcoming for violators. In our watershed, as across the State, lawful behavior has broken down and as a result, the public is knowingly being deprived of clean water, healthy fisheries and functioning ecological corridors that our rivers should deliver.  As our campaign for clean water in Washington State develops, we will soon have ways that you can let your voice be heard.  Citizens speaking for clean water are the most powerful tool we have to let our legislators know that the public demands action.

 

Summer Water Temperature Wrap-Up

Our record breaking summer has finally ended and we have pulled our temperature loggers from the Spokane River, Hangman Creek, and the Little Spokane River (see map below).  Although our water temperature program was small this year (8 locations), I think that we collected some very interesting data.  I previously wrote on water temperature in the Spokane River through August, so I will primarily talk about Hangman Creek in this post.  I’ve listed some of the highlights of our data below.  Scroll down for more graphs and analysis of these data.

  1. Water temperatures in Hangman Creek are highest at our logger in the Palouse area (Waverly) and much too high for trout both there and at the mouth, while California Creek may contain a cool water refuge.
  2. Water temperatures in the Spokane River at Barker and Harvard Road are much too high for trout this summer.  Areas downstream of these locations saw cool temperatures suitable for trout.
  3. Decreasing the flow Spokane River at Post Falls from 600 to 500 cubic feet per second (cfs) causes a measurable decrease in water temperatures of the River at Islands Trailhead (near Plante’s Ferry).

Water temperature logger locations in the Spokane River Watershed, Summer 2015

Our methods were simple.  We placed our Hobo temperature loggers in 6″ segments of white PVC tubing to shield them from the sun, secured them to a nearby tree with twine or cable, and submerged them in about 2-3 feet of water in a secluded location.  The loggers read water temperature every 30 minutes, and aside from a two week hiatus, from July 15th to September 30th.

Our data showed temperatures in Hangman Creek exceed the state maximum for non-anadromous interior Redband Trout of 18 C (64 F).  The graph below charts water temperature in Hangman Creek and the Little Spokane River, with temperature on the Y-axes in Celsius and Fahrenheit.  The temperature at Waverly regularly exceeds 25 C (77 F), and on one day reached over 27 C (81 F)!  Water temperature at the mouth of Hangman Creek was a bit lower, but remained mostly above the 18 C (64 F) mark for about a month.  Interestingly, water temperature at Waverly tends to fluctuate more than at the mouth of Hangman Creek, possibly reflecting the lack of riparian buffer in the Palouse.  Riparian buffer, the vegetated area along a stream, shades the creek.  In the Palouse, riparian buffers have been torn out long ago in lieu of agriculture, leaving streams open to direct sunlight.

I monitored water temperature California Creek as well, which is a relatively intact stream (relative to upper Hangman ), with healthy riparian buffers in the lower portion of the creek.  Water temperature here was much lower, and daily minimum temperatures fell below the 18 C (64 F)mark.  Lacking any input from groundwater that I am aware of, California Creek’s temperatures reflect the partially intact nature of its watershed.  Lastly, Ian Townley, my colleague at St. George’s School, monitored water temperatures in the Little Spokane River.  Temperatures here were much lower than Hangman Creek during the hot summer months and never exceeded the 18 C mark.  This is a reflection of the cold aquifer water running into the River and the intact nature of portions of this watershed.

Slide2

Our Spokane River temperature data is graphed below, with water temperature and Spokane River flow on the left and right y-axes, respectively.  As I wrote about earlier, the reduction of flow at Post Falls on 7/18/15 seemed to reduce the temperature at Island Trailhead.  After the hot summer air temperatures ended, water temperatures reacted accordingly, dropping down by about 5 C (9 F) during the two week period we did not have loggers in the water.

Slide1

Slide3

Our water temperature studies this summer reveal temperatures in the Spokane River and Hangman Creek that are much too hot for our native redband trout.  Trout, our “canary in a coal mine”, indicate cool, clean water and a healthy ecosystem.   The high water temperatures we found this year reflect the state of our streams and rivers in the Inland Northwest, which in many cases lack riparian buffers and other common sense measures that improve water quality.  The health of our streams depend on reestablishing riparian buffers in areas they have been removed, most of which are areas of intensive agriculture.